Recipes

I love food and I totally enjoy cooking. One of my hobbies is to collect and experiment with recipes.  The successful ones go in The BoBo Collection. Each year I select a favourite and include it with Christmas cards for family and friends. I started that tradition in 1989 and it is now part of the Christmas preparations that makes it all so special and fun.

Snack with FriendsSome of the original recipes came from cookbooks and were adapted here and there to suit me and my family.  A few are old family recipes passed down over generations. Others have more recent origins. For the most part, each one contains regular ingredients that I would normally stock in my fridge or cupboards.  Mind you, what's regular for me may not be so regular for you.  So, don't be afraid to switch things up a bit if you don't have a specific ingredient at your fingertips. Use the 'Oops Principle' and chalk it up to experience.


Here are some of the recipes from my collection.

Be sure to share with your friends on social media

Everything from main meals to snacks! Click on the recipe in the Table of Contents to get to it quickly or just browse through. Along the way you will find tips and suggestions that have worked for me over the years.

 

 

Table of Contents

Thanks for Sharing


 

Toutons

Toutins1 cup warm water (not hot)
1 tbsp sugar or honey
1 tbsp yeast (instant dry)
1 tbsp cooking oil
1 egg (beaten)
1/2 tsp salt
2 to 3 cups flour

Add water, sugar, yeast and salt in large mixing bowl and let it sit for a minute.  Then add oil and egg and whisk quickly. Add ½ cup flour and whisk until smooth. Continue adding flour beating after each addition. (Add flour until mixture is too heavy for mixing. Begin kneading process adding sprinkle of flour as needed. Knead until smooth and satiny. Grease sides and bottom of bowl with a few drops of oil and knead through. Turn dough over and punch down. Cover the dough and leave to rise until doubled (about 20 minutes to ½ an hour). Lightly knead to get rid of any air bubble and shape into toutins. Fry in butter or oil.

Tip:  I usually count each turn of the dough when I'm kneading.  It keeps me on track in making sure it's enough.  For toutin dough, I usually count to 30 or 40.

I use the same basic recipe for pizza dough but omit egg and sugar.

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Flummies

1 cup flour
2 tsp baking powder
½ tsp salt
1/3 cup water (to pasty consistency)

Non-traditional options:
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp brown sugar

½ cup raisins
OR
berries
OR
dash of garlic
shredded cheese

Combine dry ingredients and add water. Stir. It should have a thick, pasty consistency.  Use an extra tablespoon of water if the consistency isn't right. Melt margarine or butter in frying pan, Spoon batter into medium hot pan. Fry until golden on both sides. Butter or serve with hot brown sugar sauce.

Flummies are sometimes called 'Trapper's Bread" as it was a staple used by Labrador trappers as they tended their trap lines. It is similar to bannock.

You can add whatever you like to Flummies.  For instance, add cinnamon, sugar and raisins or add garlic and cheese.

My Emergency Kit contains a small fry pan, propane burner, matches, flummy mix, water and margarine

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Flat Bread

2 cups flour
½ tsp salt
3 ½ tbsp butter
¾ cup milk
½ tbsp. oil for cooking

In microwave bowl, add milk and butter and heat until just melted. Add flour and salt and mix until you can form a ball. Flour surface and knead until smooth and satiny. Form in a ball, cover with plastic wrap and let it rest for 30 minutes. Cut into 4 pieces. Roll each piece to ½” thickness. Heat fry pan and oil on medium; fry each piece of flatbread separately until golden brown on both sides. Stack the flat bread and keep covered with a tea towel to hold moisture in.

Flummies, flat bread, chapati and bannock are all variations of the same quick griddle bread recipe. You don't use baking powder in Flat Bread and Chapati

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Pie Shell Pastry

Pie Shell PastryIngredients
1 cup flour
½ tsp salt
½ tsp baking powder
1 tsp brown sugar
1/3 cup margarine
1/3 cup ice cold water

This makes one 9” pie shell.

Directions

Mix dry ingredients and add margarine (or butter). Crumble using your fingertips or a pastry maker.  Add water (stir lightly) and  form into ball.  On a floured counter or waxed paper sheet, roll dough to fit 9” pie plate.

Note: If the recipe calls for a baked pie shell, pre-heat over to 375⁰.  Bake pastry for about 12 to 15 minutes (until it is golden brown). If the recipe calls for unbaked shell, fill the shell and follow the specific directions for that recipe.

I try not to waste food. When I trim the dough from the edge of pie plate, I use the leftover crumbs to make a small tart and fill it with quiche mixture or jam or whatever suits the mood at the time.

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Ghislaine's Tea Buns

1/4 cup Margarine
1 egg
1/4 cup white sugar
2 cups flour
4 tsp baking powder
1/2 tsp salt
1/2 cup or more raisins

Mix the first three ingredients together. Gradually add 1 cup milk with 3 tbs white vinegar while mixing the dough. Roll out onto floured surface to 1" thickness and cut out with round cookie cutter/small glass, etc.

BAKE 375 - 400F for 15 mins or until top is golden colour

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BoBo's BEST Ever White Bread

4 cups warm water (not hot)
3 tbsp sugar (or honey)
2 tbsp yeast (instant dry)
¼ cup cooking oil
2 eggs (beaten)
1 tsp salt (optional)
10 to 12 cups flour (approx)
Large mixing bowl
4 medium loaf pans

Add sugar, yeast and salt in large mixing bowl; pour in water; add oil and eggs and whisk quickly. Add 2 cups flour and whisk until smooth. Continue adding flour 2 cups at a time, beating (use whisk or fork) like crazy after each addition. (The trick to light/fluffy bread is to beat it to death and then knead it really well) After about 6 cups, mixture will start getting heavy. Add flour 1 cup at a time until mixture is too heavy for mixing. At that point, get your hands into the dough. Begin kneading process adding 1 cup flour as needed throughout. Knead until smooth and satiny (count to 150 MINIMUM). Grease sides and bottom of bowl with a few drops of oil and knead through. Turn dough over, punch down; cover and leave to rise in warm place until doubled or more (about 1 hour).

Punch down and knead the dough one more time; shape into balls (3 per loaf) and place in greased loaf pans. Cover and let rise until doubled (about 1 hour). Bake in hot oven (350F) for approx 30 minutes. Place on wire racks; grease tops with margarine; let cool away from drafts. Makes about 4 to 5 loaves.

NOTE: The eggs are optional really. I started adding them to my recipe years ago to give a little more nutritious value to the bread.

TIP: Use any leftover dough for pizza braid, toutins or dinner rolls

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Pancakes

1½ cups flour
3 tsp baking powder
3 tsp sugar
½ tsp salt
1 egg
1 1/4 cups milk
1 tsp vanilla

Combine dry ingredients. Mix liquid ingredients and gradually add to dry mixture. Pour small amounts into greased frying pan. Fry until golden on both sides.

Serve with corn syrup or pancake syrup

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Tortilla Shells

1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
3 tbsp olive or vegetable oil
1/2 cup + 2 Tbsp warm water

Spice them up if you wish. Add 1/4 tsp cumin, garlic, basil, crushed peppers or whatever strikes your fancy.

Combine flour, salt and baking powder (and spices if you wish) in a bowl mixing it well. Combine oil and water and pour into dry ingredients. Mix together until it begins to form a ball. Knead the dough until smooth. On a lightly floured work surface, divide the dough into 6 equal portions. Turn each piece to coat with flour and form into balls, flattening each with the palm of your hand. Cover with a cloth towel and allow to rest for at least 15 minutes (up to maximum of 2 hours).

Roll each dough piece into a rough circle, about 10 inches in diameter (keep work surface and rolling pin lightly floured). Don’t stack uncooked tortillas as they will stick together. Heat a suitable size frying pan (on medium heat); place one shell in pan and allow to cook until bottom surface has a few pale brown spots and is a little bubbly on top (about 1 minute). Flip the shell and repeat for the other side. Adjust heat as needed so it doesn't burn. Remove from pan with tongs and stack in a covered container to keep the tortillas soft. Serve warm.

Note: To reheat shells, place a slightly damp paper towel in the bottom of a microwave-safe container that will hold the stacked tortillas. Microwave uncovered for 15-30 seconds (start with 15) or until warm, then keep covered to hold heat while serving.

To freeze, separate tortillas with parchment paper and place in a zippered bag before placing in the freezer.

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Banana Nut Bread

banana nut bread2 cups flour
½ cup white & brown sugar
2 tsp baking powder
1 tsp baking soda
1 tsp salt
1 egg (beaten)
1/3 cup milk
3 tbsp cooking oil
1 tsp vanilla
2-3 mashed bananas
½ cup walnuts (chopped)

Combine dry ingredients; mix liquid ingredients and add to dry (batter will be lumpy). Do not use electric mixture as batter should not be overly beaten. Pour (to about halfway point) into lined loaf pans or round cake or tube pan

Bake at 350⁰ for approx 60 minutes

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Brownies

¼ cup cocoa
1/3 cup butter
1 cup sugar
2 eggs
½ tsp vanilla
¾ cup flour
1/3 cup oatmeal
½ tsp baking powder
½ tap salt
½ cup chopped nuts (opt)

Beat butter and sugar.  Add eggs and vanilla and mix well. Add remaining ingredients and mix well. You don't need a mixer to make these brownies.  Just use a wooden spoon.  Spread in 8x8x2 inch lined pan.

Bake at 350⁰ for approximately 30 to 35 minutes. Cool slightly and frost with a delicious homemade chocolate frosting.

I generally make everything from scratch. I find it tastes better, I know the ingredients and there's no preservative. It doesn't take any more time then buying a boxed mix and following the directions.

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Chocolate Frosting

½ cup sugar
2 tbsp cocoa
2 tbsp butter
¼ cup milk
1 tbsp corn syrup
Dash of salt
½ to ¾ cup icing sugar
½ tsp vanilla

Mix sugar and cocoa in saucepan. Stir in butter, milk, corn syrup and salt; heat to boiling point stirring frequently. Boil for exactly 3 minutes stirring occasionally. Be sure to use a timer.  Allow to cool slightly. then add icing sugar and vanilla. Beat until smooth and spread over your cookies or cake.

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Partridge Berry (or Blueberry) Cake

partridgeberry cake and sauceDry Ingredients
1 cup sugar
2 cups flour
2 tsp baking soda
2cups berries

Liquid Ingredients
2 eggs (beaten)
1 cup sour cream (see substitute below)
½ cup melted margarine or vegetable oil
1 tsp vanilla

Cinnamon Sugar
2 tbsp cinnamon
2 tbsp white sugar

Mix dry ingredients (except berries). In a separate bowl, mix liquid ingredients.  Add to the dry ingredients and blend gently (by hand or with a mixer). Don't over mix. Add berries. Pour mixture into 9" cake pan lined with wax paper (or use tube or spring pan). Sprinkle cinnamon sugar over top of cake and, with the back of a spoon, press it gently into the surface of the batter.

Bake at 350⁰ for approximately 1 hour.  Test with a toothpick to make sure it is fully cooked in the centre. If no signs of liquid on the toothpick, it's done.

TIP:  I NEVER have sour cream on hand so I substitute with 1 cup milk and 2 tsp white vinegar.  Add the vinegar to the milk and let it sit while you are preparing the other ingredients. This gives it time to curdle a bit. Then add it to the liquid ingredients.

I always cut the cake in wedges and freeze portions ... ready for company at anytime. I just warm it in the microwave for 20 seconds and serve it with hot brown sugar sauce.  It is delicious and is a hit every time with everybody!

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Carrot Cake

Dry Ingredients
3/4 cup sugar
2 cups flour
1½ tsp baking soda
3 tsp baking powder
1 tsp salt
2 tsp cinnamon

Liquid Mixture
1 cup melted margarine
4 eggs
1 tsp vanilla

1 8 ½ oz crushed pineapple
2 cups grated carrots

Mix dry ingredients; add liquid mixture and mix well. Add pineapple (drained) and carrot and mix through. Pour into 3 9" cake pans or large cake or tube pan (greased and floured). Bake at 350⁰ approx 1 hour. Cool. Ice if desired.

TIP: Many people use Cream Cheese Icing for Carrot Cakes (see recipe). This recipe can be used as a base for any golden cake. Substitute carrot with 2 cups of berries. (Pineapple is optional but it keeps cake moist)

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Custard Powder

Custard Powder - A MUST!

Brown Sugar Sauce

1/4 cup brown sugar
1 tbsp custard powder
1 cup boiling water
2 tbsp margarine
1 tsp vanilla

Combine sugar and custard powder; add boiling water, margarine and vanilla. Boil until thickened or instead of using stove, for faster results just microwave for 1 minute.

I make and store this sauce in a mason jar. It keeps in the fridge for 2 to 3 weeks. As needed, just reheat in the microwave for 30 or 40 seconds.  If too thick add a tablespoon or so of water until it is the consistency you want.

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Mason JarsMason jars ... not just for bottling but great for storage

I store all of my leftover sauces, vegetables and sometimes meals in mason jars.  When I'm ready to reheat, I just move from the fridge to the microwave. It's perfect because you can go from cold to hot and hot to cold without worries.

 

 

Basic Coffee Cake

2 cups flour
1 cup sugar
3 tsp baking powder
1 tsp salt
1/3 cup melted butter
1 cup milk
1 egg

Streusel (see recipe)
OR 1 cup berries

Mix all ingredients and beat for approx 2 minutes scraping bowl often. Spread ½ batter in greased pan 13x9x2 or 9x9x2; sprinkle ½ streusel mixture or 1/2 cup of berries. Top with remaining batter; sprinkle remaining Streusel or berries over top. Bake at 350⁰ for 30 to 40 minutes.

TIP: You can drizzle warm coffee over the cake (or rum if you prefer)

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Pete's Shortbread

1 cup butter
½ cup icing sugar
1 ½ cups flour

Cream butter until white. This will take at least 5 minutes. Add icing sugar; cream until well blended and smooth. Gradually add flour.

This recipe is ideal for use in a cookie press. It's just the right consistency.  But if you don't have a cookie press, just roll the batter on afloured surface and cut into shapes; or roll into balls, place on cookie sheet and flatten with fork.

Use ungreased cookie sheet. I always use parchment paper. Bake for 8 minutes at 350⁰ (until golden)

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Mom's Fruit Jumbles

fruit jumblesFruit Mixture
1 cup cherries (chopped)
1 cup chopped dates
1 cup chopped nuts
1 cup raisins
½ cup flour

Other Ingredients
1½ cup margarine
1 cup brown sugar
1 cup white sugar
3 eggs
1 tsp baking soda
1 tsp baking powder
1 tsp salt
1 tsp cinnamon
1/8 tsp cloves
½ tsp ginger
1 tsp vanilla
3 ½ cup flour

Prepare the fruit and set aside in a separate bowl. In another bowl, cream margarine and sugars, add eggs one at a time beating after each addition. Stir in remaining ingredients and mix well. Add fruit and mix together. Drop by spoonful unto greased baking sheets. Makes about 10 dozen.

Bake in 375⁰ oven for 8 to 10 minutes.

These cookies are delicious. It is hard to settle on just one. Ten dozen sounds like a lot but, trust me, it isn't too many.  I freeze them (1 dozen per pack).  10 minutes defrosting and they are ready for sharing when company comes. Half a dozen and a card also makes a great 'just because' gift.

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Snowballs

Hot Mixture
1½ cups sugar
1/4 cup margarine
3 tbsp cocoa
½ cup milk

Cold Mixture
1 egg
2 cups coconut
2 cups rolled oats
1 tsp vanilla
Pinch salt Coconut

Combine ingredients for the hot mixture and boil for 3 - 4 minutes (max); allow to cool 5 to 8 minutes. Add cold mixture ingredients and mix well. Roll in coconut (1 ½" balls)

Tip: I always use a cookie scoop for these - so much faster and easier.

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Carrot Cookies

1/3 cup butter
3/4 cup of brown sugar
1 egg
1/2 tsp vanilla
1 1/3 cup flour
1/2 teaspoon of cinnamon
1/2 tsp of baking powder
1/2 tsp of baking soda
pinch of salt
1 cup grated carrots
1 cup oats

Preheat over to 350F. Cream butter and sugar; add egg and vanilla and mix well. Add flour, salt, cinnamon, baking powder and soda and mix well. Add remaining ingredients ensuring that everything is well blended.  Drop batter on parchment lined cookie sheet about 1 inch apart. Bake about 12 minutes. Leave on pan for approximate 5 minutes moving cookies to a cooling rack.

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Dave's Lemon Square's

1 cup flour
1 cup coconut
1 tsp baking powder
pinch salt
1/2 cup butter
1/4 cup sugar
1 pk lemon pie filling

With the exception of the pie filling, crumble all Ingredients with finger until the mixture is fine crumbs. Divide the mixture spreading half in a greased 9x9x2 pan. Be sure to press the crumbs evenly and firmly. Make the lemon pie filling as directed on the package and pour over the bottom layer. Spread the remaining crumbs evenly over the top. Bake at 350F for 12 to 15 minutes (until golden).

These were Dave's favourite cookies and our friend, Gussie Harris who loved to spoil him. would always make sure he had a supply on hand. Gussie is a fabulous cook and baker. Seldom using precise measurement, everything goes together 'according to' and it turns out mouthwatering.

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Chocolate Bites

3/4 cup flour
1/2 cup sugar
3 tbsp cocoa
1/2 tsp baking soda
1/4 tsp baking powder
1/4 tsp salt
1/4 cup buttermilk
3 tbsp vegetable oil
1 egg
1/2 tsp vanilla
1/4 cup hot coffee

Preheat oven to 350F. Combine the dry ingredients in a mixing bowl. Add the liquids (except the coffee) and mix until smooth. Add coffee and continue mixing until well blended.

Spoon 1 tbsp of batter into mini muffin cups. Bake 8 to 9 minutes (test with toothpick; do not over bake)

TIP: If you don't have buttermilk on hand, just add 1 tsp vinegar to the milk and let it sit for 4 or 5 minutes before using it in recipe.

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Homemade Candy

2 cup sugar
2/3 cup milk (canned)
pinch salt
3 Tbsp. Margarine
1 tsp. vanilla

Mix sugar and milk; boil 20 minutes (medium heat; stirring constantly); remove from heat; add margarine and vanilla. Stir until creamy/thickened. Pour into 9x9 greased pan. Cool 20 minutes before cutting into squares. Allow to fully cool before removing from pan

Tip: For Chocolate Candy, add 1/4 cup coco to sugar mixture.

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JuanitaRose's Fudge

1/2 cup milk
2 cups white sugar
1/3 cup cocoa
1/2 cup margarine
1 tsp vanilla
1 cup flour

Combine the first 4 ingredients and bring to a boil over medium heat. Boil 12 minutes. Remove from heat; add vanilla and flour and blend well. Pour into greased pan (8x8" dish). Cool and score into individual squares. When fully cooled, cut through.

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Kaitlyn's Fudge

2 cups sugar
2/3 cup milk
2 tbsp corn syrup
1/4 tsp salt
1/3 cup cocoa
2 tbsp margarine
1 tsp vanilla

Butter loaf pan (9x5x3").  In 2 qt saucepan, mix sugar, milk, corn syrup, salt and cocoa. Bring to boil over medium heat, stirring constantly.  Stirring occasionally, allow soft boil for about 10 1/2 to 11 minutes (no longer). Do cold water test - if drop forms  a ball that flattens when removed from water, then it's done. Remove immediately from heat and add butter.  Do NOT stir. Cool the mixture until bottom saucepan is lukewarm. Add vanilla and beat vigorously and continuously until candy is thick and no longer glossy (about 8 minutes).  Spread in loaf pan; cool until firm and cut into 1" squares.

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Donna's BEST Dessert Ever

2 cups vanilla cake pieces (2" chunks)
1 750g tub vanilla yogurt
1 small pk vanilla pudding mix
1 lg tub Cool Whip
2 cups fresh or frozen berries

In a large bowl, mix yogurt and pudding mix powder together (just use a spoon - no need for mixers or whisk). Add about 2/3s of the Cool Whip; stir in berries until nicely disbursed throughout. Gently fold in cake pieces (make sure pieces are at room temperature) and spread the works in a 9x13” dessert dish. Top it with the remaining Cool Whip and scatter a few berries over the top. That’s it – you’re done! Be sure to keep the dessert cool until ready to serve.

TIP: If you are in a hurry you can save yourself the trouble of baking the single layer cake and just buy a plain ‘ready to eat’ angel food cake at the deli

My friend, Donna, shared this recipe with me a few years ago when her job was to bring the dessert for a family get together. I usually have a cake ready in the deep freeze when special occasions are coming up. So, I adapted the recipe a little to use a 'from scratch' vanilla cake' instead of one from the deli.

This recipe takes about 5 minutes to make and tastes (and looks) like you went through a whole lot of trouble

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Quick and Easy Cheesecake

No Bake 9" Pie Crust
2 cups g/wafer crumbs
1 tbsp sugar
2 tsp cinnamon (opt)
1/4 cup melted margarine

Filling
1 cup sugar
1 tsp vanilla
1 tsp lemon juice
1 sm pk cream cheese
1 sm tub Cool Whip

Topping
2 cups berries of choice
or syrup topping of your choice

To make pie crust, combine ingredients and ensure margarine is evenly disbursed throughout. If the mixture is not wet enough add another tbsp melted margarine. It should be able to hold together when pressed into pie plate or selected dessert dish. (Sufficient for one 9" pie pan).

To make filling, cream sugar, vanilla, lemon and cream cheese until smooth; fold in Cool Whip. Top with berries or syrup of your choice.

For toppings you can use homemade jams or bakeapple, partridgeberry and blueberry syrups.  Store bought toppings also work well if you don't have anything homemade on hand.

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Blueberry Crisp

3 cups blueberries
2/3 cup brown sugar
1/3 cup flour
1/3 cup rolled oats
1/3 cup margarine (softened)
1/4 tsp cinnamon
pinch salt

Heat over to 375F.  Spread blueberries in ungreased square baking dish 8x8x2". Crumble brown sugar, flour, oats, margarine, cinnamon and salt; sprinkle on top.

Bake until topping is light brown and blueberries are hot (about 30 minutes). Serve warm with ice cream or whipped cream.

Substitutes: 
Apple slices (4 cups sliced tart applies); or,
Rhubarb (4 cups chopped rhubarb, increase to 1 cup sugar - bake at 350F for 40 minutes)
Cherry (1 can cherry pie filling)

TIP: You can make Crisp in the microwave (12 minutes). Use a glass baking dish.

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Chocolate Chip Dessert

1 lg tub Cool Whip
18 chocolate chip cookies (approx)
1 regular Crispy Crunch Bar
½ to 1 cup milk (for dunking)

Allow Cool Whip to thaw as per instructions whip gently with a fork. Using a 9x9 dish, spread a few dollops of Cool Whip on the bottom. Dunk each cookie in milk (quick dunk only) to create a single layer. Spread dollops of Cool Whip evenly over cookies and repeat with another layer of cookies and Cool Whip. Chop bar into small pieces and sprinkle over top. Freeze for several hours. Remove from freezer about 5 minutes before serving (not too long as it only keeps shape for a short while.
Although it’s highly unlikely you will have any leftover, the dessert can be refrozen.

Double or triple the recipe depending on size of crowd you are serving. NOTE: I've also made this dessert using just one layer of cookies and it works great - especially if you are running low on cookies.

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String Pie

Ingredients
8 oz spaghetti
1 eggs slightly beaten
1/3 cup grated Parmesan cheese
1 tbsp. butter
2 ½ cups spaghetti sauce combined with a dash of red hot sauce
1 lb ground beef (optional)
1/4 chopped green pepper (optional)
½ onion (optional)
1 cup cottage cheese
1 cup shredded mozzarella cheese

Out of cottage cheese? Then substitute with Swiss cheese in white wine sauce (1/4 cup melted butter, 1 heaping tbsp flour; mix well; add 1 cup milk; 1 to 2 tbsp dry white wine; boil to thicken stirring vigorously to get rid of any lumps; add 1/3 cup Swiss cheese)

Directions
Preheat oven to 350°F.  Cook and drain spaghetti in regular pot.  If using meat and vegetables, sauté in large skillet; drain.

Combine eggs, cooked spaghetti (with or without the meat and veggies), Parmesan cheese and butter in large bowl.

Spread in 13x9" baking dish; cover with spaghetti sauce letting it seep down through the spaghetti; layer cottage cheese (or white wine sauce) and top with mozzarella.

Bake 30 minutes. Serve with garlic bread.

This is some times called a Spaghetti Bake but I call it String Pie.  I omit the meat and veggies quite often as it makes a fast and easy light, but filling, lunch.

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Stir fry with East Indian twist

Spice mixture
1/2 tsp cayenne pepper
1/2 tsp turmeric
1/2 tsp coriander
1/2 tsp salt
1 tbsp fenugreek
1/2 tsp cumin

Veggies and sauce
3 or 4 cloves crushed garlic
1/4 fresh hot finger pepper (chopped)
1 onion (cut in wedges)
other veggies (your choice)
1/2 to 3/4 cup chicken broth
1/2 tbsp corn starch

Mix spices together and set aside. Should be Sufficient for 2 or 3 stir fries ... the amount to use each time depends on your taste. I use about 1 to 1 1/2 tsp. Fry veggies until crunchy (or until done to suit your preference).  Add spices to chicken broth and pour over veggies; add corn starch (dissolve in a bit of cold water first); heat through until thickened.

Delicious!

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Sweet and Sour Chicken

Ingredients
1-2 lbs chicken pieces
3-4 carrots chopped
1 onion chopped
1 cup celery (chopped)
1 apple chopped

Sauce
1 can tomato soup
2 tbsp Worcestershire sauce
1 cup water
1/4 cup white vinegar
½ cup brown sugar
2 tbsp soy sauce
1 tsp salt

Directions
In large casserole dish, layer chicken and vegetables. In a bowl, mix the ingredients for the sauce.  Pour over chicken and veggies.

Cover and bake at 350⁰ for 1 ½ hours.

Serve with rice.

This recipe is about as simple as it gets.  Everything goes in together at the same time.
One dish! No fuss! No Mess! AND, it tastes delicious.

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Old friends and old books are treasures!

Cookbook 1948

Cookbook 1948


 

Teriyaki Beef or Moose

Ingredients
2 lbs meat slivered

Teriyaki Sauce
¼ cup molasses
½ cup cooking oil
1 tbsp ground ginger
2 tsp garlic powder
1 cup soy sauce
1 tbsp dry mustard

Directions
Mix all ingredients for sauce; heat through and mix well. Pour in 2 cup mason jar and refrigerate until ready to use. Will last 2 to 3 months.

Add sauce to 2 lbs slivered, uncooked, meat, turning to coat. Cover and refrigerate overnight - spooning marinade over meat occasionally.

Remove meat from marinade and fast fry until brown and tender. Pour marinade over meat and heat through.

Serve with rice and a vegetable side dish.

I make most of my sauces and marinades from scratch.  This is one I usually have on hand in the back of the fridge.

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Corned Beef Hash

Potatoes (about 5 lbs)
1 can Corned Beef
1/4 cup onion (chopped or minced)

Boil potatoes until done; drain and mash well. Add corned beef and onion and mash until it is well blended with the potato. That's all there is to it!

When I grew up, I remember this recipe was a favourite. It was served hot and with our choice of ketchup or Heniz 57 as a condiment on the side. If there was any leftover, it would be fried into patties and served the next day.

 

TIP: Substitute the corned beef with any meat of your choice, just be sure to cut finely so it mixes well with the potatoes.

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Toasty Cheese Bake

Toasty Cheese BakeIngredients
½ lb ground beef
¼ cup chopped onion
½ tsp salt
1 tbsp. prepared mustard
2 tbsp. chopped celery
1 ½ cup cheese (shredded)
5 slices toast (no butter)

Sauce
1 cup milk
1 egg (slightly beaten)
½ tsp dry mustard
½ tsp salt & pepper

Directions
Cook and stir meat, onion, celery, prepared mustard and salt until meat is brown and onion tender.

In greased baking pan (9x9x2") layer 1/3 meat mixture on bottom, then toast, then remaining meat mixture and top with cheese. Mix ingredients for sauce; pour over casserole. Sprinkle with paprika (optional)

Bake at 350⁰ for 25 minutes
Makes 4 to 6 servings

This recipe is always a hit with children of all ages. It's quick and easy.

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Baked Greens and Ham

1 tbsp vegetable oil
1 small onion (chunked)
4 cloves garlic (chopped)
2 cups cooked ham (chunked)
4 cups greens (steamed)
2 cups cooked rice
1 can chopped tomatoes
1 egg
3/4 cup grated cheddar cheese
2 tbsp hot pepper sauce

Preheat oven to 350F. Grease 2 quart casserole dish.

Steam greens until tender and drain. Saute onion and garlic in oil until softened (about 5 minutes). Add ham and greens and saute 2 minutes. Transfer to large bowl.

Drain tomatoes reserving liquid. Add tomatoes, rice and 3/4 cup reserved juice (if not enough just add water), egg, 1/2 cup of cheese and hot sauce to the greens mixture. Stir to combine and transfer to the casserole dish, spreading evenly. Top with remaining cheese.

Bake (covered) 40 minutes. Let stand a few minutes before serving.

TIP: You can used canned or bottled greens. I bottle greens every summer - enough to get me through the winter months. It works perfectly in this recipe.

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George's Chicken Curry

3 tbsp ghee
4 chicken thighs
1 large onion
6 garlic cloves
12 Thai chilies
1 tsp fenugreek seeds
1 tsp cumin seeds
1 tsp black mustard seed
1 bay leaf
2 tsp turmeric powder or 1 tbsp turmeric root
2 tsp (heaping) garam masala
1 tbsp yellow curry powder
1 tsp turmeric powder
2 tbsp fresh ginger root
1/4 c finely chopped cilantro
2 medium potatoes
2 tbsp ghee or clarified butter
1/2 tsp salt
1 can of coconut milk
1 cup jasmin or basmati rice

Place the garlic, ginger, chilies and half the onion in the food processor and purée. Dice the other half of the onion and cube the chicken and potatoes into bite size pieces. In a large frying pan pour in the ghee and turn on to a medium heat. Pour in the seeds and the bay leaf and toast them. Once the seeds are toasted remove the bay leaf and pour in the coconut milk and add the chicken, potatoes, onion and remaining spices leaving the cilantro until the last. Simmer the curry for 20 minutes on a medium low heat with a lid on and stir occasionally to make sure nothing is sticking to pan, then add the cilantro and simmer for another 5 minutes.
Place the rice in a sauce pan or in a rice cooker and add 2 cups of water. Cook the rice and set aside

When the curry is cooked, place a layer of rice on the plate with a well in the middle, fill the well with curry
George was given this recipe from an Indo-Fajian friend of his while he was in Fiji. This original family recipe was passed down from several generations.

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Quiche

QuicheIngredients
1 unbaked pie shell (9" )
1 cup milk
4 eggs (beaten)
2 tbsp diced onion
2 tbsp green peppers
1 tsp Worcestershire sauce
dash red hot pepper sauce
8 slices bacon (crispy)
OR: substitute bacon for 1 cup spinach
2 cups shredded cheese

Pie Shell Pastry

1 cup flour
½ tsp salt
½ tsp baking powder
1 tsp brown sugar
1/3 cup margarine
1/3 cup ice cold water

Directions
Make pie shell (crumble dry ingredients, add water, form into ball and roll on floured surface to fit 9” pie plate.)

Fry bacon until crispy, drain to remove grease and chop. In large bowl, beat milk and eggs; add remaining ingredients including bacon (or spinach) and cheese. Mix well. Pour into unbaked pie shell.

Bake in pre-heated oven (400⁰ for first 15 minutes; reduce to 350⁰ and continue baking for 30 minutes).

Serve hot with salad, creamed potatoes and carrots or side dishes of your choice.

This is comfort food at its best and it is quick and easy to make to boot!

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Best Ever Shepherd's Pie

2 medium onion
1 tbsp vegetable oil
1/2 tsp parsley
2 cups vegetables (diced carrots, corn, peas)
3 cups ground beef
1/2 cup beef broth
1 tsp Worcestershire sauce
3 cups Irish Potatoes

Lightly brown onions in oil, add parsley, ground beef, Worcestershire sauce, broth, salt and pepper. Fry in large skillet until meat is cooked (about 10 minutes). Add vegetables and mix through. Transfer to a shallow baking dish. Heap with the Irish potatoes and brown under a broiler.

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Blackened Salmon

2 tbsp paprika
1 tbsp cayenne pepper
1 tbsp onion powder
½ tsp black pepper
1/4 tsp thyme
1/4 tsp basil
1/4 tsp oregano
4 salmon fillets
½ cup margarine (melted)

In small bowl, mix all herbs and spices. Brush salmon fillets on both sides with melted butter and cover evenly (both sides) with spice mixture. Drizzle one side of each fillet with ½ remaining butter. In large skillet (over high heat) fry salmon, butter side down, until blackened (about 2 to 5 minutes). Turn fillets, drizzle with remaining butter, and continue cooking until blackened.

Tip: Any large skillet will do but cast iron fry pan works best

This recipe was included with my Christmas card in 2007.  Sometimes I bag the spice mixture and give it as a little gift along with the recipe card.

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Curried Split Peas

1 cup yellow split peas
1 1/2 tsp salt (optional)
1 tbsp curry powder
1 tbsp. milk
1 tbsp butter
1/2 cup slightly soured cream

Cover peas with boiling water and add salt (optional). Cover and boil gently until peas are tender enough to drain and mash (about 1 1/2 hour). Mash to a pulp; add butter and add soured cream. Dissolve curry powder in 1 tbsp milk; stir and add to peas. Mix well.

Tip: This can be served as a main dish meat substitute or as a side dish with sausages or other meat. If you don't have any cream on hand, use 1/4 cup milk soured with 1/2 tsp vinegar.

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Chop Suey

1/4 cup flour
1 tsp salt
1/2 to 1 lb cubed pork or chicken
1/4 cup vegetable oil
1 cup chopped onion
1 cup chopped celery (1" pieces)
1 cup beef stock
1 1/2 tbsp cornstarch
1/2 cup soy sauce
2 tbsp molasses
1/2 tsp ground ginger
1 can bean sprouts (drained)

Combine four and salt in large bowl; add meat and toss to lightly cover. in wok or large skillet, heat oil and add meat (high heat until brown). Add onion and continue browning. Stir in celery beef stock, cornstarch, ginger, soy sauce and molasses. Cover and cook for approximately 25 minutes. Add bean sprouts and heat through. Thicken with addition flour. Serve over cooked rice.

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Chicken Chow Mein

1/2 pk Chinese Noodles
1/2 cup boiling water
1 tsp salt

Chicken and Vegetables
2 chicken breasts
1 garlic clove (minced)
1 tbsp cooking oil

1 tbsp cooking oil
1 cup chopped cabbage
1 chopped onion
1 cup chopped celery
1 cup fresh or canned mushrooms (optional)
1 chopped green peppers (optional)
1 can water chestnuts (optional)
1 can bamboo shoots (optional)
1 cup bean sprouts (optional)

Chow Mein Sauce

1 tsp oyster sauce (or fish oil)
3 tbsp low sodium soy sauce
3 tbsp sesame oil
1/2 cup chicken broth
1 tbsp cornstarch
1 tbsp granulated sugar (or dry sherry)

Cook noodles in boiling water and salt for approximately 5 minutes (until tender but firm). drain; rinse with cold water and drain well.

Heat wok or large frying pan (until very hod); add first lot of cooking oil, chicken and garlic. Stir fry for about 3 minutes. Transfer to medium bowl.

Heat second amount of oil in wok. Add vegetables and stir fry for about 2 minutes (until crisp). Add chicken mixture.

Mix all ingredients for the chow mein sauce in a separate bottle or measuring cup and add to the vegetables and chicken. Cook and stir for about 1 minute until boiling and thickened. Add noodles. Heat and stir fry for 3 to 4 minutes until heated through.

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Irish Potatoes

2 lbs potatoes
4 cups chicken broth
1 clove garlic (chopped)
1 lb leeks (thinly sliced)
3 cloves garlic (chopped)
1 lb cabbage (thinly sliced)
1 bay leaf
1/4 tsp salt
1/4 tsp pepper
2 tbsp butter
2 tbsp milk (or as desired)
1/4 cup chives (minced)

Clean and cut potatoes in medium chunks. Boil in chicken broth and 1 clove chopped garlic until tender. Drain and transfer to large bowl.

Be sure to remove the core from cabbage before you slice it. In another saucepan combine leeks, cabbage, garlic and bay leaf adding sufficient water to cover veggies. Bring to a boil and simmer about 15 to 20 minutes (until leeks and cabbage are softened). Drain well. Discard the bay leaf. Chop cooked vegetables in fine pieces.

Mash potatoes adding butter and milk. Stir in cooked leeks, cabbage, and garlic, Add salt and pepper and stir through. Top with chives.

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Chicken Divan

Main Ingredients
110 oz pk cauliflower
1 10 oz pk broccoli
2-3 cups cooked chicken
Paprika

White Sauce
½ cup melted margarine
½ cup flour
1 cup milk
1 cup chicken broth
1/8 tsp nutmeg
salt & pepper
¼ cup dry white wine
1/3 cup Swiss Cheese

Cook broccoli and cauliflower; spread vegetables and chicken over bottom of casserole dish (9x12x2). To make sauce, melt margarine and stir in flour until smooth paste. Add liquids and spices; mix well and boil til thickens. Add Swiss Cheese (shredded) and wine to the sauce. Pour over vegetables and chicken; sprinkle with paprika. Bake at 325o for about 30 minutes.

Tip: Excellent way of using up left over chicken (or turkey). Serve with plain rice and side dishes of glazed carrots and baked tomato slices. If you don't have white wine, you can substitute 1/2 tsp white vinegar (or white wine vinegar)

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Meatballs

1 lb ground beef
1/2 tsp salt & pepper
1 tbsp Worcestershire sauce
1 tsp mustard
½ tsp ginger
½ tsp garlic
1 minced or chopped onion
½ tsp Montreal steak spice
1 egg
½ cup rolled oats
1/8 cup milk

Mix all ingredients for meatballs and roll into 1 or 1 ½ inch balls. If using oven method, place all meatballs on parchment paper on cookie sheet and bake (uncovered) at 400⁰ for about 25 minutes.

I use this recipe as the base for almost every type of meatball - cocktail, sweet and sour, Waikiki or to serve with spaghetti

Tip: I usually use a cookie scoop to make meatballs. Just dip it in flour each time to keep things from sticking too much.

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Sauces for Meatballs

 

Sweet and Sour Meatballs

Meatballs (see recipe)
3/4 cup brown sugar
1 tbsp cornstarch
1/4 cup white vinegar
1 cup catsup
1 cup water

To make sauce, combine sugar and cornstarch (mix well); add remaining ingredients and cook til thickened. Pour over meatballs and heat through. Serve over plain rice. Serve with rice.


 

Waikiki Meatballs

Meatballs (see recipe)
1/3 cup green pepper sliced
1 can pineapple tidbits

Sauce
1 cup pineapple juice
1/4 cup white vinegar
1 cup hot water
1 tbsp cornstarch
1/2 cup brown sugar
3 tsp soy sauce

Combine sugar and cornstarch (mix well); drain pineapples; add water to juice (if necessary) to make 1 cup; add remaining ingredients except pineapple and peppers and cook until thickened. Add pepper and pineapple; pour sauce over meatballs and heat through. Serve over plain rice.

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Bunkhouse Chili

1 lb ground beef
1 cup chopped onion
1 cup chopped green pepper
1 can mushrooms
1 cup celery
1 can kidney beans
1 can (28oz) tomatoes
1 can (8oz) tomato sauce
1 cup barbecue sauce
1 bottle beer
2 tbsp chili powder
1 tsp hot pepper sauce
1/8 tsp Paprika
2 tsp black pepper
1 tsp salt; dash garlic
1/4 tsp red pepper

In large skillet, cook and stir meat, onions and green pepper until meat is brown and onion is tender. Drain off fat. Stir in tomatoes (be sure to cut in small pieces); add remaining ingredients except kidney beans.

Heat to boiling, reduce heat, cover and simmer for 1 - 1 ½ hours, stirring constantly. Add Kidney beans and heat through.
Serve with toutons or dinner rolls

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Curried Lentil Soup

Curried Lentil Soup1 tbsp curry powder
2 tbsp chicken bouillon
2 tbsp onion flakes
1 tbsp mint leaves
2 tsp garlic powder
1 tsp ginger
1 tsp each salt and pepper
¼ cup dried red split lentils
¾ cup dried green lentils
½ cup long grain rice

Add:
8 cups water
1 28 oz can diced tomatoes

Directions:
Combine all ingredients in large pot. Bring to boil on medium-high. Reduce heat to medium-low, cover and simmer for 45 to 50 minutes, stirring occasionally, until lentils and rice are tender.

Makes about 11 cups

Tip: Omit the salt and use 'no salted added' tomatoes if you are trying to cut down on the sodium intake.

I sometimes layer the dry ingredients in a mason jar and give it, along with the recipe card, as a gift. My friends love it!

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French Onion Soup

3 medium onions (sliced)
4 tbsp beef soup base
1/4 cup margarine
4 cups water
1 tbsp Worcestershire sauce
toasted bread slices
mozzarella cheese

Saute onions in margarine until tender. In medium pot, add onions and butter to the remaining ingredients and simmer for 20 minutes.

Pour into French Onion Soup bowls; top with toasted bread and grated mozzarella cheese. Place under broiler until cheese is melted and crusty.

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Cauliflower Soup

1 tbsp vegetable oil
1 sm leek (white part only)
1 med onion
4 cups chicken broth
1/2 head cauliflower
1/2 tsp thyme
1/2 tsp ground cumin
1/2 tsp pepper
2/3 cup shredded Swiss cheese

Rinse and coarsely chop vegetables. In large saucepan over medium high heat, heat oil. Add leek and onion and saute until softened (about 5 minutes). Add broth, cauliflower and spices. Simmer, uncovered until cauliflower is tender (about 30 minutes).

That's it! it's ready for serving. Just ladle soup into bowls and sprinkle cheese over each serving. Makes enough for 4 servings

Tip: I always use low sodium (no MSG) broths. Also, you can use Gruyère cheese if you like but I usually stick with the Swiss as I always have a supply of that frozen in individual 1/3 cup lots, ready for use in whatever recipe.

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Bean Salad

1 (15oz) can green beans
1 (15oz) can yellow beans
1 (15oz) can lima beans
1 (15oz) can kidney beans
1 green pepper (chopped)
1 onion (sliced)
3/4 cup sugar
1/2 cup white vinegar
1 tsp salt & pepper
1/2 cup salad oil

Combine beans, green pepper and onion in large jar. Toss to mix. Heat vinegar and sugar in microwave until sugar is dissolved; add oil, salt and pepper and onion rings. Pour over the bean mixture and toss to integrate. Let stand in fridge for 2 hours.

Tip: Sometimes I use the large can of 5 or 6 bean blend and add yellow and green beans. If refrigerated, this salad can be stored for several weeks

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Fish Chowder

4 slices bacon (crispy)
1 chopped onion
5 med potatoes (cubed)
3 tbsp green pepper
2 celery stocks (chopped)
1 pt light (coffee) cream
1 tsp salt & red pepper
1/4 tsp garlic
2 cups chicken stock
1 tsp Worcestershire sauce
1-2 dashes tobasco sauce
2 14 oz cans baby clams
1½ lbs cod (cubed)
1 cup water

Cook bacon; add vegetables, chicken stock and spices. Cover and simmer until vegetables are tender. Mash mixture; heat clams (including juice) separately and add to vegetable mixture. Simmer cod in 1 cup water for 4 minutes; add to vegetable mixture. Add cream and heat through.

Tip: You don't need to fuss over what fish and how many types to use when you're making fish chowder. It can be just one type or several. It all depends on what you have at hand - salmon, halibut, cod, etc. It's the same with vegetables. I've made it with and without potatoes and I've added others like broccoli and cauliflower, peppers ... whatever strikes my fancy at the time. And, while cream makes the best chowder, I've substituted it with milk (skim, whole). Again, it all depends on what I have in stock.

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Rotini Salad

2 cups rotini noodles
1 chopped onion
Salt, pepper & paprika
½ cup diced green pepper
1 chopped tomato
1/2 cup cheese cubed
1/2 cup ham cubed' (optional)
1 apple cubed

Dressing
1/4 cup vinegar
1/3 cup ketchup
1/3 cup vegetable oil
2/3 cup sugar

Cook noodles; drain and cool. Add onion, salt, pepper, paprika, and remaining salad ingredients.

Mix ingredients for dressing in separate bowl and pour over salad, tossing to coat. Chill until ready to serve

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Apricot Jalapeno Cheese Topper

1 cup white wine (dry)
1 cup dried apricots (chopped)
½ cup water
½ cup sugar
1 jalapeno pepper (seeded & minced)
½ tsp lemon juice

In large glass measuring cup, microwave wine (high) for 1 minute (until hot); add apricots; let stand for 1 hour; strain into saucepan, pressing apricots to release any liquid. Set apricots aside. Add sugar & water to saucepan and bring to boil over medium-high heat, stirring until sugar is dissolved. Boil until syrupy (about 10 minutes). Add apricots and pepper, simmer until as thick as corn syrup (about 10 minutes); stir in lemon juice. Let cool. Spoon into jars, seal and refrigerate.

Serve with cream cheese on crackers or spoon over a round of brie cheese and warm slightly (microwave 1 minute or bake in 350 oven for 5 minutes)

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Mom's Rhubarb Relish

4 cups rhubarb (chopped)
4 cups onions (chopped)
2 cups brown sugar
2 cups vinegar
1 tsp cloves
1 tsp allspice
1 tsp salt
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp each salt & pepper

Chop rhubarb (or zucchini) and onions. In large pot, add all ingredients and mix well; boil for 2 hours.
To bottle, use hot water bath method for ½ hour.

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Deviled Eggs

6 hard boiled eggs
1/2 tsp vinegar
1 tbsp grated onion
1/2 tsp salt
1/8 tsp pepper
1 tsp prepared mustard
1/4 cup salad dressing

Cut eggs in half (lengthwise). Remove yolks; mash. Add remaining ingredients to yolks, whip until smooth and fluffy. Spoon into white halves. Refrigerate.

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Pickled Mushrooms

1/3 cup red wine vinegar
1/3 cup salad oil
1 sm onion (thinly sliced)
2 tsp parsley flakes
1 tsp prepared mustard
1 tsp salt
1 tbsp brown sugar
2 6oz can whole mushrooms

Combine all ingredients except mushrooms and bring to a boil. Add mushrooms and simmer for 5 to 6 minutes. Chill in covered bowl for several hours. Drain and serve or leave in pickle and refrigerate in covered container or bottle ... they'll keep for several weeks.

Pickled Mushrooms

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Zippy Cheese Canapes

8 slices bread (toasted)
1 cup shredded sharp cheese
1/3 cup Mayonnaise
1/2 tsp dry mustard
1/3 cup chopped ripe olives
pinch of black pepper

Remove outer crust from toast. Combine remaining ingredients and spread on toast slices. Quarter each slice and place on cookie sheet. Heat in hot oven (400F) for about 5 minutes.

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Crabmeat Canapes

1/2 lb crabmeat
1/3 cup lemon juice
3 oz cream cheese
1/4 cup mayonnaise
3 tbsp finely chopped green onions
1/8 tsp garlic powder
pinch salt

Marinate the crabmeat in the lemon juice for an hour or so; drain. Blend remaining ingredients and mix with crabmeat. Chill. Serve on crisp crackers or Melba toast.

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Mustard Salad Dressing

2 tbsp Mustard
2 tbsp sugar (or more - to taste)
1 tbsp milk (canned milk if available)
1/2 tsp vinegar

Add sugar to mustard, stir and add milk. Keep stirring until right consistency adding more sugar as needed. Add vinegar as you stir. No exact measurements really, just when it looks and tastes right. Enjoy!

Thanks to my cousin, Vena, for sharing this old family recipe. It brings back wonderful memories of Auntie Mary (Vena's Mom). And, in our home, it was a regular thing as our Mom made it every Sunday. I remember using it on leaf lettuce from the garden. Delicious!

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Drawn Butter Gravy

½ cup butter
½ medium onion (chopped)
1 ½ cups boiling water
Salt and pepper to taste

Thicken with:
2 tbsp flour
1/4 cup cold water
(I usually mix flour thickening separately. I put the flour and cold water in a jar, mixing (or shaking) it until it is well blended and smooth.)

Over medium heat (using small saucepan) add butter and boiling water. When the butter has melted, add the onion and let it boil for a minute; add the flour/water  mixture gradually, stirring until the gravy thickens.

Drawn butter is normally just a melted butter that is used over fish dishes. Sometimes people will add garlic to give it that extra punch. While it will sound strange to some, in our home Drawn Butter Gravy was a favourite. It was served over boiled (or fried) bologna and boiled potatoes. Usually there'd be kernel or creamed corn served as a side dish.

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Cream Cheese Icing

½ cup margarine
1 sm pk cream cheese
1 tsp vanilla
2 cups icing sugar

Combine margarine cheese and vanilla and cream well. Gradually add icing sugar. Beat well. If too thick add a small amount of milk.

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Oat Streusel

1/2 cup chopped walnuts (optional)
1/2  cup rolled oats
1/2 cup brown sugar
1/2 cup flour
1/4 cup butter or margarine
½ tsp cinnamo

Mix all ingredients until crumbly. Sprinkle streusel evenly on top of coffee or berry cakes pressing gently into batter before baking.  You can spread 1/2 on bottom of the cake pan and the remaining on top.

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